METRANETLONDONMET
 

 

Introduction to Referencing

All information, ideas and quotations from anything you have consulted in order to write an assignment at university must be correctly referenced.

What is Referencing?
  • Referencing is the process of acknowledging your sources. Sources include anything you take information from e.g. books, journals, magazines, newspapers, websites, lectures, legislation, maps, television and radio programmes, works of art, dramatic performances etc.
  • By referencing your sources you are demonstrating to your tutors the breadth of your research and reinforcing your own arguments. Using a wide range of sources is excellent academic practice and is certainly not a sign of weakness!
  • Referencing enables your tutors and anyone else reading your work to check your sources and follow up information for themselves.
  • Failure to reference correctly, or worse still, not to reference at all, may lead to accusations of plagiarism (using other people's ideas, words and research as if they were your own). Plagiarism is a serious offence at university and may lead to disciplinary action.

There are several different styles of referencing and it is important to check with your tutors to make sure you know which style you need to use.

Styles include Harvard (see below), OSCOLA, Numeric and APA.

You can also download a PDF version of the Harvard referencing guide.


Harvard Referencing

What is Harvard Referencing?

Harvard referencing consists of two parts:

1. In-text citation
The author and date of publication appear in brackets immediately after the idea, information or quote you are referencing, eg, Political reform is needed (Kruger, 2007).

Tips

  • You need to include the page number in your text when you quote directly from a source, eg, For some, ‘going green’ is driven by the prospect of “pocketing substantial government subsidies” (Lawson, 2009, p118).
  • You also need to include the page number if you re-write an author’s specific idea or sentence using your own words, eg, Swetnam (2004, p.95) has argued that consistency is of the utmost importance in referencing.
  • Where the author’s name appears in your essay, you do not need to put the name in brackets, eg, Luke (2008) highlights the importance of business to business pressure.

2. A reference list
This appears at the end of your assignment giving full publication details for all of the sources you used, eg, Kruger, D. (2007) On fraternity: politics beyond liberty and equality London: Institute for the Study of Civil Society.

  • Your sources should be listed in alphabetical order by author name in your reference list.

Basics of Harvard Referencing

One author

In-text citation example:
From a survey of twenty-four American museums, Chhabra (2009, p.315) observes that ‘almost all the marketing plans failed to emphasize the need to build relationships with the local community with an objective to benefit them’.

Reference list example:
Chhabra, D. (2009) Proposing a sustainable marketing framework for heritage tourism, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 17 (3), pp.303-320.

Two authors

In-text citation example:
When translating legal texts, ambiguities in the language pose a key challenge (Hjort-Pedersen and Faber, 2001).

Reference list example:
Hjort-Pedersen, M. and Faber, D. (2001) Lexical ambiguity and legal translation: A discussion, Multilingua, 20 (4), pp.379-392.

Three or more authors

In-text citation example:
Public subsidies awarded to the Swiss film industry are part of a strategy to increase the profile Swiss national film production within an international market (Weckerle et al., 2008).

Reference list example:
Weckerle, C., Gerig, M. and Sondermann, M. (2008) Creative industries Switzerland: facts, models, culture. Basel: Birkhauser.

Tips

  • For three or more authors, list the first author’s surname followed by et al. (this is Latin for “and others”) in the in-text citation.
  • In the reference list, you must list all of the authors’ names.
Corporate author or organisation as author

In-text citation example:
The Data Protection Act requires good practice in records management (Crown Prosecution Service, 2008).

Reference list example:
Crown Prosecution Service (2008) Data protection: legal guidance [Online]. Available at: http://www.cps.gov.uk/legal/d_to_g/data_protection/ (Accessed: 25 June 2009).

Tips

  • Sometimes an organisation or company is responsible for the work. Use the organisation as the author if there is not an individual author named – this is often referred to as a corporate author.
No author

Referencing newspaper articles where no author can be identified:
Title of newspaper (Year) Title of article, day and month..

Referencing websites where no author or organisation can be identified:
Title (Year) [Online]. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Tips

  • If the author/editor is anonymous or cannot be identified, do not use the term ‘anon’. Instead, use the title of the work (or URL if a website) and date in your in-text citation.
  • You should carefully assess the credibility of any source which does not have an identifiable author.
Neither author nor title

Referencing websites where no author or organisation or title can be identified:
URL (Year) [Online]. (Accessed: date).

Tips

  • If a resource has no identifiable author you should be cautious about using it for your academic work as you must be able to trust the credibility of all your sources.
Two or more works of an author published in the same year

In-text citation example:
Vighi and Feldner (2007a; 2007b) examine Zizek’s critique of Foucault’s discourse analysis.

Reference list example:
Vighi, F. and Feldner, H. (2007a) Ideology critique or discourse analysis? Zizek against Foucault, European Journal of Political Theory, 6 (2), pp.141-159.

Vighi, F. and Feldner, H. (2007b) Zizek: beyond Foucault. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan.

Author citing another author

In-text citation example:
Children influence family purchases through ‘pester power’ (Evans and Toth, 2003, cited in McCarthy and McCarthy, 2007, p.2).

Reference list example:
McCarthy, M. and McCarthy P. (2007) Parents’ perceptions of pork sausages as a meal solution, Journal of Food Products Marketing, 13 (4), pp.1-22.

Tips

  • If you have only read the work that cites the original author, you should only include these details in your reference list.
  • If possible, find and read the cited work. If you have done so you should then cite and reference both works fully.
No date
  • If there is no publication date then use the term ‘no date’ instead of the year, eg, (Smith, no date, p.52).
  • Remember to think about the reliability of any undated information you use for your assignments.
Multiple sources

In-text citation example:
Recent studies have discussed the concept of authenticity within the tourism industry (Chhabra, 2010; Sims, 2009; Condevaux, 2009).

Tips

  • Use the semi-colon ; to clearly separate multiple sources in your in-text citation.

Referencing different types of sources

Books

Author (Year) Title of book, Edition. Place of publication: Publisher.

In-text citation example:
The history of feminist film theory can be seen in the context of its relationship to the wider theoretical fields of post-structuralism and psychoanalysis (McCabe, 2004).

Reference list example:
McCabe, J. (2004) Feminist film studies: writing the woman into cinema. London: Wallflower.

Tips

  • To find the date of publication, the publisher and the place of publication, look on the back of the main title page. You can also find this information on the library catalogue.
  • You only need to mention the edition if it is not the first edition. For example, if the book is the second edition, write 2nd ed. after the title in your reference list .
Edited books

Editor (ed.) (Year) Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher.

In-text citation example:
Research shows that television has a huge impact on social behaviour in many parts of the world (Asamen and Berry, 1998).

Reference list example:
Asamen, J.K. and Berry, G.L. (eds.) (1998) Research paradigms, television, and social behavior. London: Sage Publications.

Book chapters

Chapter author (Year) Title of chapter, in Book editor (ed.) Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher, page numbers.

In-text citation example:
Clarke (2006, p.91) argues that ‘the transformation of citizens into consumers diminishes the collective ethos and practices of the public domain’.

Reference list example:
Clarke, J. (2006) Consumerism and the remaking of state-citizen relations in the UK, in Marston, G. and McDonald, C. (eds.) Analysing social policy: a governmental approach. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp.89-106.

Tips

  • To find the date of publication, the publisher and the place of publication, look on the back of the main title page. You can also find this information on the library catalogue.
  • You only need to mention the edition if it is not the first edition. For example, if the book is the second edition, write 2nd ed. after the title in your reference list.
E-books

Author (Year) Title of book, Edition (if not first). Place of publication: Publisher [Online]. Available at: Name of ebook provider or database (Accessed: date).

In-text citation example:
Pound (2011) discuses the development of early childhood education theories from the nineteenth century and their influence on contemporary practice.

Reference list example:
Pound, L. (2011) Influencing early childhood education: key figures, philosophies and ideas. New York: Open University Press [Online]. Available at: MyiLibrary (Accessed: 5 February 2012).

E-books accessed via an e-book reader

Author (Year of e-book edition) Title of book, Edition (if not first). Place of publication (if known): Publisher. Type of e-book [Online]. Available at: URL where you downloaded the e-book or the book’s DOI (digital object idenitifer) (Accessed: date).

In-text citation example:
Machiavelli (2004) writes that reforming an existing order is one of the most difficult things a prince can do.

Reference list example:
Machiavelli, N. (2004) The Prince. ePenguin. Kindle version [Online] Available at: Amazon.co.uk (Accessed: 5 February 2012).

Tips

  • You should use the year the e-book version was published.
  • If the e-book reader does not provide page numbers, use the chapter instead for citing the location of quoted text.

Journal articles

Author (Year) Title of article, Title of Journal, volume (issue), page numbers.

In-text citation example:
Pintrich (2003) translates generalised statements on motivation into a list of principles to consider when structuring student learning.

Reference list example:
Pintrich, P. (2003) A motivational science perspective on the role of student motivation in learning and teaching contexts, Journal of Education Psychology, 95 (4), pp.667-686.

Tips

  • Some journals use the month or season of publication, or just a number instead of the volume and issue numbers. Enter these details after the journal title in your reference list.
Journal articles from a database

Author (Year) Title of article, Title of journal, volume (issue), page numbers [Online]. Available at: Database name (Accessed: date).

In-text citation example:
Finch (2006) proposes a new research framework for evidence-based sports injury prevention.

Reference list example:
Finch, C. (2006) A new framework for research leading to sports injury prevention, Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 9 (1-2), pp.3-9 [Online]. Available at: Science Direct (Accessed: 15 August 2011).

Open access journal articles

Author (Year) Title of article, Title of journal, volume (issue), page numbers (if known) [Online]. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

In-text citation example:
User tests are a good way of determining the usability of software applications (Loureiro-Koechlin, 2010).

Reference list example:
Loureiro-Koechlin, C. (2010) Uncovering User Perceptions of Research Activity Data, Ariadne, 42 [Online]. Available at: http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue62/loureiroKoechlin/ (Accessed: 12 July 2010).

Tips

  • You will know a journal is open-access if it is freely available on the internet and you do not need to log in to a database to access it.
  • If it is freely available on the internet, always include the URL in you reference.
  • Check to see if an open-access journal has been peer-reviewed, or checked by academic experts, which will ensure it is of good enough quality to use in your academic work.
  • Open-access articles may not have page numbers, but if they do, you should include them in your reference.

Newspaper articles

Author (Year) Title of article, Title of newspaper, day and month, page numbers.

In-text citation example:
The allocation of public funding for the UK film industry is still uncertain after the closure of the UK Film Council (Bintliff, 2010).

Reference list example:
Bintliff, E. (2010) Industry fears ‘land grab’ after Film Council ends, The Financial Times, 10 September, p.4.

Newspaper articles from the internet

Author (Year) Title of article, Title of newspaper, day and month [Online]. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

In-text citation example:
Despite government hopes for economic growth, consumer spending actually fell during the first quarter of 2010 (Elliott, 2010).

Reference list example:
Elliott, L. (2010) UK recession even deeper than first thought, Guardian, 12 July [Online]. Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2010/jul/12/uk-recession-deeper-than-first-thought (Accessed: 12 July 2010).

Tips

  • When citing a newspaper article, consider how you can evaluate the article’s accuracy and academic value.

Theses and dissertations

Author (Year) Title of thesis. Type of degree thesis. Institution.

In-text citation example:
Evering’s (2007) research shows the benefits of using an adjusted earnings approach for internet brand valuation.

Reference list example:
Evering, S. (2007) The valuation of internet brands. MSc thesis. London Metropolitan University.

Theses and dissertations from the internet

Author (Year) Title of thesis. Type of degree thesis. Institution [Online]. Available at: URL (Accessed date).

In-text citation example:
British working-class women’s literature experienced a renaissance during the 1980s era of Thatcherism (Petty, 2009).

Reference list example:
Petty, S. (2009) Working-class women and contemporary British literature. PhD thesis. Loughborough University [Online]. Available at: http://hdl.handle.net/2134/5441 (Accessed: 8 August 2011).


Published conference papers

Author (Year) Title of paper, in Editor of conference proceedings (ed.) (if available) Title of conference proceedings, Location and date of conference. Place of publication: Publisher, page numbers.

In-text citation example:
Gouadec (2001) argued for a more vocational approach to the postgraduate translation curriculum.

Reference list example:
Gouadec, D. (2001) Training translators: certainties, uncertainties, dilemmas, in Maia, B., Haller, J. and Ulrych, M. (eds.) Training the language services provider for the new millennium: proceedings of the III Encontros de Tradução de Astra-FLUP, Universidade do Porto 17 March. Porto: Universidade do Porto, pp.31-41.

Conference papers from the internet

Author (Year) Title of paper, Title of conference, Location and date of conference. Publisher [Online]. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

In-text citation example:
Nie et al. (2008) examined the impact of student-developed podcasts on students’ learning.

Reference list example:
Nie, M., Cashmore, A. and Cane, C. (2008) The educational value of student-generated podcasts, Association for Learning Technology Annual Conference, University of Leeds 9-11 September. The Association for Learning Technology [Online]. Available at: http://hdl.handle.net/2381/4120 (Accessed: 18 August 2010).

Tips

  • If not otherwise stated, the publisher will be the organising body of the conference.
Unpublished conference papers or presentations

Author or Presenter (Year) Title of paper. Paper presented at Title of conference, Location and date of conference, unpublished.

In-text citation example:
Secker (2011) demonstrated the repository of learning resources that had been created as part of the DELILA project.

Reference list example:
Secker, J. (2011) Why, why, why DELILA? Paper presented at DELILA Dissemination Event, Senate House, London 26 July, unpublished.


Market research reports from a database

Corporate author (Year) Title of report. [Online]. Available at: Database name (Accessed: date).

In-text citation example:
Luxury holidays have not suffered from the recession as badly as other areas of the holiday market (Mintel, 2010).

Reference list example:
Mintel (2010) Luxury holidays – UK – June 2010 [Online]. Available at: Mintel Oxygen (Accessed: 13 July 2010).

Tips

  • The corporate author is the name of the organisation or company responsible for the report. The corporate author is sometimes, but not always, the same as the database name.
  • Look at the copyright information to find the name of the corporate author.
Company or country profiles from a database

Corporate author (Year) Title of profile [Online]. Available at: Database name (Accessed: date).

In-text citation example (company profile):
Despite declining sales in the first half of 2009, Marks and Spencer maintained market leadership in the general merchandise sector in the UK (Datamonitor, 2009).

Reference list example (company profile):
Datamonitor (2009) Marks and Spencer Group plc: company profile [Online]. Available at: Business Source Premier (Accessed: 13 July 2010).

Another reference list example (country profile):
Euromonitor (2010) China: country factfile [Online]. Available at: GMID: Global Market Information Database (Accessed: 13 July 2010).

Financial reports from a database

Corporate author (Year) Document title, Database name [Online]. Available at: Database name (Accessed date).

In-text citation example:
Tesco reported a profit margin of 5.58 percent for the 2009 financial year (Bureau Van Dijk, 2010).

Reference list example:
Bureau Van Dijk (2010) Tesco plc [Online]. Available at: Orbis 200,000 (Accessed: 13 July 2010).

Data obtained from Datastream or Bloomberg

Author (Year) Data derived from: Details of data used [Online]. Available at: Database name (Accessed: date).

In-text citation example:
The FTSE100 achieved a ten year high in June 2007 (Thompson Reuters, 2010).

Reference list example:
Thompson Reuters (2010) Data derived from: FTSE100 daily index time-series data 2000-2010 [Online]. Available at: Datastream (Accessed: 13 July 2010).


Web pages

Author (Year) Title of web page [Online]. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

In-text citation example:
Data Protection requirements demand good practice in records management (Crown Prosecution Service, 2008).

Reference list example:
Crown Prosecution Service (2008) Data protection: legal guidance [Online]. Available at: http://www.cps.gov.uk/legal/d_to_g/data_protection/ (Accessed: 25 June 2009).

Tips

  • The year of the web page is either the year of last update, or the year of copyright (whichever is most recent if they are different). The copyright statement can usually be found at the bottom of the page. Use the most recent year if it is a date range (eg, for ©2007-2010, use the year 2010).
  • When no date of copyright or update can be identified you should put (no date) instead of the year. However, you should question the reliability of an undated website as the information on it may be out of date.
  • The author of the page can often be found in the copyright statement at the bottom of the page or in the ‘About’ section.
  • Sometimes an organisation or company is responsible for the web page. Use the organisation as the author if there is not an individual author named – this is referred to as a corporate author.
  • It is important that you include the date you accessed the page because web pages can change and be updated regularly.
  • It is good practice to keep a copy of the front page of any website you use.
Blogs

Author (Year) Title of blog message, Title of blog, day and month posted [Online]. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

In-text citation example:
On the Westminster blog, Pickard (2010) discuses the recent media coverage of plans to abolish the Food Standards Agency.

Reference list example:
Pickard, J. (2010) The scrapping of the Food Standards Agency, Westminster blog, 12 July [Online]. Available at: http://blogs.ft.com/westminster/ (Accessed: 12 July 2010).

Forums: entire forum

Forum name (Year) [Online]. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

In-text citation example:
The Lonely Planet Thorn Tree (2010) is one of the popular forums for obtaining travel information.

Reference list example:
Lonely Planet Thorn Tree (2010) [Online]. Available at: http://www.lonelyplanet.com/thorntree/ (Accessed: 13 July 2010).

Forums: individual message or thread

Author (Year) Title of message or thread, Title of discussion group or forum, day and month posted [Online]. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

In-text citation example:
Responses to a post on the CILIP Communities forum highlight the professional debate over the ethics of using Twitter during conference presentations (Cook, 2010).

Reference list example:
Cook, S. (2010) Twitter, tweeting and ethics, CILIP Communities forum, 5 May [Online]. Available at: http://communities.cilip.org.uk/forums/t/11951.aspx (Accessed: 18 August 2010).

Tips

  • If the author’s full name is available, use the surname and first initial. If only a screen name is available, use the screen name for the author.

Emails and other personal communication

Author of email (Year) Email to recipient name, date and month.

In-text citation example:
Smith (2011) states that initial findings from his unpublished research indicate...

Reference list example:
Smith, K. (2011) Email to Timothy Jones, 12 June.

Tips

  • It is good practice to obtain permission from the author of the email before citing him or her in your work.
  • Personal communications including letters, face-to-face or telephone conversations, text messages or faxes can be referenced using the same format; in place of ‘Email to ...’, state the medium of communication (eg: ‘Letter to ...’, ‘Conversation with ...’ ‘Text message to ...’, etc).
Emails sent to a discussion list

Author of message (Year) Subject of message, Email list name, date and month sent [Online]. Available at: email list address.

In-text citation example:
The Zanran.com search engine has been highlighted as a good means of locating data and statistics on the internet (Thompson, 2011).

Reference list example:
Thompson, E. (2011) Search engine for data and statistics, The Business Librarians Association Mailing List, 10 May [Online]. Available at: lis-business@jiscmail.ac.uk.

Tips

  • It is good practice to obtain permission from the sender of the email before citing him or her in your work.

Lecture notes

Lecturer (Year) Title of lecture [Lecture to module name]. Date and month.

In-text citation example:
In his lecture on cost estimation, Jones (2011) pointed out that both mathematical and non-mathematical methods are used for estimating future costs.

Reference list example:
Jones, T. (2011) Cost estimation [Lecture to Management Accounting Fundamentals AC1002]. 5 May.

Tutors' materials on WebLearn

Tutor (Year) Title of item, Name of module [Online]. Available at: WebLearn URL (Accessed: date).

In-text citation example:
The case study explained how King’s Lynn NHS Trust in Norfolk achieved the new NHS gold standard in people management (Bloisi, 2010).

Reference list example:
Bloisi, W. (2010) The culture of change in the NHS case study, Organisation and Management MNP021N [Online]. Available at: http://weblearn.londonmet.ac.uk (Accessed: 9 November 2010).


Images copied from print sources

Figure caption:
Fig number: Creator’s name (Year) Title of image [Medium] (Collection details) Secondary creator, eg, photographed by. (Source publication in Author, Year, page number format).

Figure caption example:
Fig 1: Andre, C. (1959) Last Ladder [Wood] (Tate Gallery London) photographed by Hollis Frampton. (Potts, 2000, p.23).

In-text citation example:
... using salvaged materials, for example, Carl Andre’s Last Ladder (1959), see Fig 1.

Reference list example:
Potts, A. (2000) The sculptural imagination: figurative, modernist, minimalist. London: Yale University Press, p.23, illus.

Tips

  • Any image used in your written or studio work should be carefully referenced, cited and attributed.
  • Copies of images must be numbered as Figures in the order they appear in your work and must include a caption directly under or next to the image.
  • Any image discussed in your work should be cited and attributed in your text with the name of the artist, title of the work and year of the work and should refer to the corresponding Figure number (eg, see Fig 1).
  • If you have taken your own photograph of the work, insert the words Author’s own image before the creator’s name in the Figure caption.
  • Your reference list should include the book or other print source from where you copied the image, using the appropriate format (eg, Book, Journal article, etc). The reference should also include illus. after the page number to indicate that you are citing an illustration of the original artwork.
Images copied from online sources

Figure caption:
Fig number: Creator’s name (Year) Title of image [Medium] [Online]. Available at: specific URL of image (Accessed: date). (Source in Author or Organisation, Year format).

Figure caption example:
Fig 2: Day, L. (1965) Nova 3. [Textile] [Online]. Available at: http://www.vads.ac.uk/images/DCSC/large/4869.jpg (Accessed: 10 May 2011). (VADS, 2008) .

In-text citation example:
... geometrical patterns as exemplified in Lucienne Day’s Nova 3 (1965), see Fig 2.

Reference list example:
VADS (2008) Design Council Slide Collection [Online]. Available at: http://www.vads.ac.uk/collections/DCSC.html (Accessed: 10 May 2011).

Tips

  • Right-click on the image or Control+click on a Mac to view the image properties and image URL.
  • Any image copied from the internet and used in your written or studio work should be carefully referenced, cited and attributed.
  • Images must be numbered as Figures in the order they appear in your work and must include a caption directly under or next to the image.
  • Any image discussed in your work should be cited and attributed in your text with the name of the artist, title of the work and year of the work and should refer to the corresponding Figure number (eg, see Fig 2).
  • Your reference list should include details of the website from where you copied the image (see Web Pages for how to cite websites).

Television programmes

Title of programme (Year) Name of channel, date and month, time of transmission.

In-text citation example:
New allegations of phone hacking by British newspapers were discussed on Newsnight (2011).

Reference list example:
Newsnight (2011) BBC Two, 3 August, 23:30.

Tips

  • If you are making a general reference to a television show in your work and not to a specific broadcast, you can omit the date, month and time from your reference.
Episodes from television programmes

Title of episode (Year) Title of programme. Series, episode number. Name of channel, date and month, time of transmission.

In-text citation example:
The Doctor time-travels to the Whitehouse to help President Nixon in the sixth series of Doctor Who (The impossible astronaut, 2011).

Reference list example:
The impossible astronaut (2011) Doctor Who. Series 6, episode 1. BBC One, 23 April, 18:00.

Films / movies

Title of film (Year) Directed by director name [Film]. Place of distribution: Distribution company.

In-text citation example:
1970s movie-making culture is blended with science fiction in the film Super 8 (2011).

Reference list example:
Super 8 (2011) Directed by J.J. Abrams [Film]. Los Angeles: Paramount Pictures.

Films on DVD

Title of film (Year) Directed by director name [DVD]. Place of distribution: Distribution company.

In-text citation example:
Orson Welles explored a range of innovative visual and narrative techniques in his 1941 film Citizen Kane (2003).

Reference list example:
Citizen Kane (2003) Directed by Orson Welles [DVD]. London: Universal Pictures.

Tips

  • You should use the year the DVD was distributed (not the year the film was made) in your reference. You should also use the distribution place and company of the DVD, not those of the original film.
Films on YouTube

Name of person or organisation posting the video (Year posted) Title of film or programme [Online]. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

In-text citation example:
A basic video introduction to the atom is provided online by the Khan Academy (2009).

Reference list example:
The Khan Academy (2009) Introduction to the atom [Online] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/user/khanacademy?feature=watch#p/c/166048DD75B05C0D/1/1xSQlwWGT8M (Accessed: 5 February 2012).

Radio programmes

Title of programme (Year) Name of channel, date and month, time of transmission.

In-text citation example:
Examination of the history of the beauty industry reveals the longstanding pressure on women to look young (Women’s hour, 2011).

Reference list example:
Women’s hour (2011) BBC Radio 4, 9 August, 10:00.

Radio programmes heard on the internet

Title of programme (Year) Name of channel, date and month, time of original transmission [Online]. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

In-text citation example:
The connection between Leipzig’s Baroque architecture and music is explored Musical migrants (2009).

Reference list example:
Musical migrants (2009) BBC Radio 4, 19 May, 15:45 [Online]. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/episode/b00kctm0/Musical_Migrants_Series_2_Germany/ (Accessed: 9 August 2011).

 


 
 
  Page last updated : : 26 Mar 2013