Numeric / Footnotes Referencing Style

Always check with your tutor before choosing a referencing style.
Most departments have a preferred method.

Please note: this page is still under construction and there will be more content to follow.


In-Text Referencing

References are numbered within the text and listed in numeric order in a footnote or in the reference list at the end of the document. For example:

According to Thody ³ ....

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Reference List

Lists all sources referenced in-text, numbered to correspond with in-text references and placed in numeric order. It is important to check that the numbered references in the reference list match the ones in your text.

  1. Thody, A., 2006. Writing and presenting research. London: Sage Publications.

  2. Pears, R. and Shields, G., 2005. Cite them right: the essential guide to referencing and plagiarism. New ed. Newcastle upon Tyne: Pear Tree Books.

  3. Thody, A. Op. cit. p. 25

  4. Crane, N.B., 1996. Electronic styles: a handbook for citing electronic information. 2nd Ed. Medford, N.J.: Information Today.

  5. Ibid. p. 24

Op. cit. is used to refer to a previous reference when there are other references between them (e.g. 1 + 3).

Ibid. means in the same book or passage when references follow each other (e.g. 4 + 5).

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  Page last updated : : 01 Oct 2009